In this post, I’m going to show you needed steps and downfalls on running a LUKS encrypted Ubuntu Server setup and how it can be extended to allow remote unlocking.
- A server to install on
- Static public IP address
- The so called Alternative Ubuntu Server installer1
- Some patience 🙂
Installing and Setting up encrypted LVM
It is assumed that you already know your way around ISO files and how to boot them on your server.
We will also use the simplest possible setup: A server with a single disk
These steps would completely remove any leftover partitions and their associated data on the drive without the possibility to recover. Consider yourself warned!
We are going to use LVM inside the LUKS container, it is not only supported, but the recommended way as we could also make use of advanced LVM functionalities later on.
Follow the installation until you reach the disk partitioning section:
The disk might need to be unmounted first:
choose Guided – use entire disk and setup encrypted LVM option:
In the next window, take extreme care to select the right HDD in case you have multiple ones:
Confirm changing the partition scheme to LVM if it was asked for:
Setup a strong passphrase for LUKS and confirm it:
Decide on how much of the disk space you want to dedicate to the root partition. For advanced setups, you can use only a percentage of the available space and create more partitions later on (And all of them would be automatically encrypted). The default is to make a single partition the size of the HDD:
Confirm the partition setup and continue with the installation:
Since There is no other OS on this system, it’s safe to install GRUB boot loader:
You will be prompted for the LUKS password after reboot to unlock the disk:
Our overall setup would be something like this:
NAME FSTYPE sda ├─sda1 ext4 ├─sda2 └─sda5 crypto_LUKS └─sda5_crypt LVM2_member ├─ubuntu--vg-root ext4 └─ubuntu--vg-swap_1 swap
sda1is our boot partition. It is NOT ENCRYPTED2
sda2marks the start of the logical partitions
sda5is our encrypted LUKS partition
sda5_cryptis the virtual crypt partition after unlocking (which uses LVM)
ubuntu--vg-rootis our root partition
ubuntu--vg-swap_1is the swap partition
Remote unlocking overview
The process behind this fairly simple. The kernel loads initramfs image, inside this image are the required files/modules/scripts for decrypting/mounting root.
Now if we could somehow run a SSH server in initramfs and make it accessible via network, one could remotely connect to it to unlock root partition.
As initramfs runs in memory, we are somewhat limited in the size and complexity of the running programs. This is the main reason why Dropbear is being used as the SSH server combined with BusyBox to provide the shell and basic utilities.
All provided steps require root access. So you might want to
sudo -i to root before continuing.
Make sure your system (specially cryptsetup package) is up-to-date:
apt-get update && apt-get --assume-yes upgrade
Install Dropbear package for initramfs
As i said earlier, Ubuntu uses special Dropbear package to provide SSH server functionalities in initramfs environment with all the required hooks and scripts. Install it by issuing:
apt-get --assume-yes install dropbear-initramfs
If you get this warning while installing it, just ignore it for now, we will fix it soon enough:
dropbear: WARNING: Invalid authorized_keys file, remote unlocking of cryptroot via SSH won’t work!
Dropbear SSH keys
When you install the package for the first time, it also generates
ecdsa host keys3 placed in
Although possible, It is not wise to share your real
OpenSSH host keys with the
dropbear-initramfs ones. This is because for the keys to be accessible by the SSH server, they must not be encrypted (The same also applies to the initramfs itself as the kernel needs to be able to load it).
This means that even on a fully encrypted root system, physical access would be enough to retrieve the
dropbear-initramfs private keys (unless boot partition is also encrypted. That unfortunately however, would also render our remote unlocking approach useless)
The downside of using a different private key for the Dropbear server, is that it will likely result in the client getting a scary warning about the possibility of a man-in-the-middle attack. This is because the server keys would be different before/after unlocking the root partition. The simplest (and possibly the best) way to avoid this issue, is to run the Dropbear SSH instance on another port. We will cover this shortly.
Dropbear config file
Dropbear’s config file for the special
dropbear-initramfs package, are placed in
Changing default port
For the reason discussed above, we’re better off using a custom port to listen on. This also would have the advantage of reducing attacks on the server, as no firewall is running in initramfs environment.
To make it listen on port
4748, edit the said config file and add the following line:
A user reported that for some reason, the above method did not work for him and he added the same line to
Please note that this would result in these messages when rebuilding initramfs later on:
dropbear: WARNING: Setting DROPBEAR_* or PKGOPTION_dropbear_* in /etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf is deprecated and will be ignored in a future release dropbear: WARNING: Use /etc/dropbear-initramfs/config instead
I have also added
-s -j -k -I 60 to
DROPBEAR_OPTIONS just for the peace of mind. See
man dropbear for details.
Password login has been disabled for
dropbear-initramfs and only publickey authentication is allowed. Public keys should be placed in
/etc/dropbear-initramfs/authorized_keys, one entry at a line. rsa based authentication is advised over ecdsa and dss.
You can also limit shell access to unlocking encrypted root partition only, by adding further per-user limitations in
authorized_keys file like this:
no-port-forwarding,no-agent-forwarding,no-x11-forwarding,command="/bin/cryptroot-unlock" ssh-rsa ...
In case it is not clear, you need to import your client public key to
For rsa, it’s default location on the client is
You might need to issue
ssh-keygen on the client first if this hasn’t been done already.
After changing Dropbear’s settings, do not forget to regenerate initramfs:
This time, no error should appear.
Kernel IP parameters
Connecting remotely to the SSH server, would require the kernel to be able to setup network interfaces properly.
This would require that the kernel to first recognize the network interface (which is usually the case4), and also be able to setup IP parameters correctly.
Setting up static IP
The default kernel’s behavior is getting the IP address via dhcp (
ip=dhcp). If your network lacks a DHCP server, special kernel boot
IP parameter is needed. This would usually be in the form of:
Append that to the
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT parameter in
/etc/default/grub and regenerate GRUB config file:
A user reported that for some reason, the above method did not work for him and instead he added this line to
The above line, uses the same structure for most part. Except that its location is different and it uses the capital
And then of course rebuild initramfs:
At this point if you have set up everything correctly, after a restart and right after the kernel loads initramfs, network’s IP settings would be applied. Dropbear would start shortly after, listening for new connections:
And now we could connect to the Dropbear server remotely:
ssh -o "HostKeyAlgorithms ssh-rsa" -p 4748 [email protected]
Which brings us to the BusyBox built-in shell:
To unlock root partition, and maybe others like swap, run `cryptroot-unlock`
BusyBox v1.27.2 (Ubuntu 1:1.27.2-2ubuntu3) built-in shell (ash) Enter ‘help’ for a list of built-in commands.
cryptroot-unlock command is all that stands now between you and booting up your server!
Small percentage of users, report that after the setup, they have some problems bringing up the NIC interfaces and they need to do so manually.
Since I could not reproduce this behavior, if you believe you are affected by it, I need your help to track it down. Please Contact me.
- The live version lacks the required steps necessary for setting up LVM and encryption. At the moment of writing, the latest version is
18.04.2and can be downloaded from This Link. You’d probably want to download the
- While GRUB2 now supports unlocking an encrypted boot partition, I do not believe that it could be setup to do so remotely. ^
- Dropbear does not seem to be supporting
- If not, the module must be included in initramfs. Refer to
/usr/share/doc/dropbear-initramfs/README.initramfsfor details ^
- Take a look at nfsroot.txt ^